مخاطرات بهداشتی و زیست محیطی نانو ذرات

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Abstract

همزمان با گسترش روز افزون فناوری‌نانو، نگرانی‌‌های بسیاری در مورد خطرات احتمالی نانو مواد برای سلامتی انسان و محیط زیست به‌وجود آمده است. دو فاکتور مهم در سمیت این قبیل مواد، ترکیب شیمیایی و اندازه بسیار کوچک آنها است. طی بررسی حاضر، راه‌‌های مواجهه و خطرات احتمالی نانو ذرات برای محیط زیست و انسان مورد بحث قرار خواهد گرفت. مواجهه جانداران با نانو ذرات از طریق آب، هوا و خاک می‌‌‌باشد. از جمله مهمترین اثرات زیست محیطی نانو مواد می‌‌توان به ایجاد آسیب مغزی و تأخیر در زاد و ولد برخی ماهی‌‌ها، کاهش رشد ریشه گیاهان و تغییر در جمعیت میکروبی آب و خاک اشاره کرد. راه‌های اصلی مواجهه جمعیت های انسانی با نانو ذرات از طریق استنشاق، پوست و گوارش می‌‌باشد. نانو ذرات استنشاق شده علاوه بر اثرات سمی بر ریه، با ورود به جریان خون در تمام بدن پراکنده می‌‌شوند و باعث بروز اثراتی چون مسمومیت حاد و مزمن، تحریک، خوردگی بافت، ایجاد حساسیت و عوارض سرطانزایی، جهش زایی و سمیت برای سیستم تولید مثل می‌‌شود. ضمن اینکه ورود آنها به سلول می‌‌تواند باعث اختلال در عملکرد آن نظیر همانند سازی DNA گردد. ورود فناوری‌نانو به عرصه بهداشت، درمان و تولید لوازم آرایشی در سال‌های اخیر در حالی صورت گرفته است که به هیچ وجه نمی توان اثرات بهداشتی احتمالی آنها را نادیده گرفت.

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