آلودگی نوری و پیامدهای منفی آن بر حفاظت از تنوع زیستی

Author

Abstract

آلودگی نوری تهدیدی رو به گسترش بوده که زیستگاه های حساس و حیات وحش را متاثر ساخته است. تاثیر میزان نور طبیعی در تنظیم برهم‌‌کنش‌‌ گونه‌‌های مختلف تاکنون توسط پژوهشگران بسیاری مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. اما به جز موارد معدود، مطالعه‌‌ای در مورد تبعات نور مصنوعی بر این برهم‌‌کنش‌‌ها  انجام نشده است. با گسترش سکونت‌‌گاه‌‌های انسانی، میزان نور مصنوعی نیز رو به افزایش گذاشته است به نحوی که بر زیست‌‌شناسی و بوم‌‌شناسی گونه های حیات وحش اثراتی اساسی باقی گذاشته است. برخی از اثرات افزایش نور مصنوعی بر گروه های تاکسونومیکی خاص شناخته شده می باشد. مثلا مرگ و میر پرندگان مهاجر در اطراف سازه های نورانی بلند و همچنین اشتباه در جهت یابی لاکپشت‌‌‌های دریایی به دلیل افزایش نور مصنوعی در محل‌‌‌های زادآوری، اختلال در زمان فعالیت پستانداران کوچکی مثل جوندگان آنها قابل ذکر می‌‌باشند. اثرات افزایش نور مصنوعی در طول شب بر رفتار و بوم شناسی جوامع گونه ها کمتر مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و موضوعی جدید برای پژوهش در بوم شناسی و چالش های حفاظت می‌‌باشد.

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